Treatment of Bacterial Infections with Cipro (Ciprofloxacin)
- Name: Cipro
- Brand Name: Ciloxan / Ciplox / Cifran / Ciproxin / Proquin
- Active ingredient: Ciprofloxacin
- Used for: Bacterial Infections
- Dosages (mg): 20/40
- Drug Class: Antibiotic
- Definition of Cipro (Ciprofloxacin)
- Cipro Applications
- How to Take Cipro?
- Cipro Contradictions
- Before Applying Cipro
- Cipro Interaction with Other Drugs
- Possible Side Effects
- Storage Conditions
- Application of Cipro in HIV Patients
- Ophthalmic Application of Cipro
Definition of Cipro (Ciprofloxacin)
Cipro is applied to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It is effective in the treatment of various bacteria. Cipro also kills some bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, like penicillin. The drug absorbs well within two hours after application and enters the blood plasma. It penetrates the organs and tissues and passes the blood-brain barrier fast.
This drug belongs to the group of fluoroquinolones, applied for systemic use. It inhibits the growth of microorganisms that cause infection.
Ciprofloxacin is applied to treat infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to the drug:
- Lower respiratory tract infections
- Ear infections and sinusitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria
- Infections of kidney and urinary tract
- Skin and soft tissue infections
- Bones and joints infections
- Pelvic infections (prostatitis and adnexitis) and gonorrhea
- Gastrointestinal tract infections, including those caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni
- Intra-abdominal infections
- Infections in patients with reduced immunity
How to Take Cipro?
Cipro is manufactured in the form of infusions and tablets of various dosages from 100 mg to 750 mg of Cipro. This drug is also available in the liquid form.
The dosage of Cipro and duration of its reception depends on the kind of infection patients have.
- Cipro can be taken with or without food. It is advisable to take the drug twice a day after meals. When taking Cipro, patients should drink plenty of water to ensure that the drug does not accumulate in the kidneys.
- Cipro should be taken exactly as assigned by the doctor. To clarify the indications for use, it is recommended to contact the doctor or pharmacist.
- Do not crush or chew the tablets. Swallow them whole. Their composition is specifically designed for the slow dissolution of the drug in the body.
- Do not take the drug with dairy products or food rich in calcium. In this case, the effect of the medicine might be reduced.
- Take ciprofloxacin at regular intervals.
- Do not take antacids with calcium, aluminum, or magnesium as well as an anti-ulcer stomach sucralfate, or vitamin or food supplements with iron, calcium, or zinc at least six hours before taking Cipro and for two hours after its ingestion. Simultaneous application with sucralfate and vitamin or mineral supplements can significantly lower the effects of the antibiotic.
- It is necessary to undergo a complete course of treatment to kill all the bad bacteria that cause infection.
- Hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones
- Simultaneous applications with tizanidine
- Pseudomembranous colitis
- Patients under 18 years old
- During breastfeeding
Before Applying Cipro
Before applying ciprofloxacin, patients need to let their doctor know whether or not they have kidney disease, seizures, or epilepsy. Cipro can’t be used in these patients. A dosage adjustment and monitoring during the treatment might be required if any of the conditions listed above are true.
Cipro belongs to the category C in FDA pregnancy categories. This means that it is not known whether the drug can lead to adverse effects on the fetus. Cipro should not be prescribed to patients who are pregnant or can become pregnant during the treatment with this medication without first consulting the doctor.
Cipro gets into breast milk and can affect an infant. In this case, the drug should not be taken without consulting your physician.
Cipro is not advisable for application in people under 18 years old (except for the use in the treatment of the effects of inhalation anthrax). The drug may interfere with bone development apparatus.
- Patients should avoid direct sunlight because Cipro may enhance the sensitivity of the skin and cause sunburn. In case of severe sunburn, rash, redness, or swelling due to sun exposure, medical assistance is required.
- Patients should be cautious when driving, performing hazardous activities, or operating machinery because Cipro may lead to dizziness.
- Patients should avoid redundant consumption of products containing caffeine because the medicine may increase the effects of caffeine.
Patients who suffer from kidney failure require an adjustment in the dose. Caution is required when applying the medicine in elderly patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy, cerebral circulatory disorders, and convulsive disorder of unknown etiology.
During treatment, patients should receive plenty of fluids.
In case of persistent diarrhea, ciprofloxacin should be discontinued.
During simultaneous application of ciprofloxacin and barbiturates, it is necessary to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG. In the course of treatment, it is also necessary to control the concentration of urea, creatinine, and liver transaminases in blood.
Cipro Interaction with Other Drugs
If patients take any other medications, they need to tell their doctor about it.
During simultaneous application of ciprofloxacin and didanosine, the absorption of the former is reduced due to the formation of ciprofloxacin complexons contained in didanosine in the form of aluminum and magnesium buffers.
When taking Cipro together with warfarin, the risk of bleeding increases.
Simultaneous application of ciprofloxacin and theophylline may increase the concentration of the latter in blood plasma, which leads to an increased risk of toxic effects associated with theophylline.
Simultaneous treatment with Cipro and antacids as well as drugs containing ions of aluminum, zinc, magnesium, or iron may cause a decrease in absorption of ciprofloxacin. Thus, the interval between administrations of these drugs must be at least 4 hours.
Possible Side Effects
Like all other drugs, ciprofloxacin can cause side effects with varying frequency, regardless of whether or not it was taken before.
- Often: nausea and diarrhea
- Uncommon: fungal superinfection, loss of appetite, eosinophilia, hyperactivity, headaches, agitation, dizziness, taste disturbance, sleep disturbances, pain in the stomach and intestine, flatulence, dyspepsia, rash, pruritus, joint aches, renal dysfunction, fatigue, and fever.
- Rare: inflammation of the colon, a change in the number of white blood cells, reduced platelet counts, anemia, allergic reactions, depression, suicidal thoughts, blurred vision, tachycardia, decreased blood pressure, fainting, jaundice, photosensitivity, hepatitis, muscle pain, and nephritis.
- Very rare: hemolytic anemia, suppression of bone marrow function, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction, suicide attempts, increased intracranial pressure, changes in color perception, pancreatitis, vasculitis, hepatic necrosis, erythema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, edema, and increased sweating.
- Unknown frequency: peripheral neuropathy, arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia, acute generalized pustular rash, and increased prothrombin time.
The symptoms of overdose with Cipro in the form of infusions include nausea, confusion, vomiting, and mental stimulation.
In case of overdose with Cipro infusions, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the patient, assign symptomatic therapy, and ensure adequate intake of fluids. In order to avert the development of crystalluria, it is recommended to monitor the renal function, including the acidity of urine.
The symptoms of overdose with Cipro tablets include tremor, dizziness, headaches, tiredness, hallucinations, seizures, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, crystalluria, and haematuria.
In case of overdose with tablets, it is necessary to perform gastric lavage, prescribe activated charcoal and antacids containing calcium and magnesium to lower the absorption of ciprofloxacin. The monitor of the renal function, urinary pH, and acidity is required. Symptomatic therapy is also required. The patient’s overall condition should be monitored as well.
Cipro should be stored in the dark and dry place. The drug must be kept out of the reach of children.
Application of Cipro in HIV Patients
Cipro is applied to treat opportunistic infections in HIV patients.
Many bacteria live in the body. A healthy immune system can fight them and control them. However, HIV-infection can abate the immune system. Infections that take advantage of the abated immune system are called opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections often occur in people with advanced HIV infection.
Cipro, when applied together with other antibiotics, helps in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, one of the opportunistic infections in people living with HIV).
MAC can happen in people with a number of CD4 cells lower than 75. If patients’ level of CD4 cells is below 75, they can talk to their doctor about applying Cipro.
Ophthalmic Application of Cipro
When using ciprofloxacin in ophthalmology, it is required to take into account the possibility of nasopharyngeal passage, which may lead to an increase in the frequency of occurrence and an increase in the degree of severity of bacterial resistance.
In patients who suffer from corneal ulcer, the appearance of a white crystalline precipitate was observed, which represents the drug residues. The precipitate does not preclude the continued use of ciprofloxacin and does not affect its therapeutic effect. The appearance of precipitate is observed in the period from 24 hours to 7 days after the beginning of therapy. Its resorption can occur immediately after the formation or 13 days after the beginning of therapy.
During treatment, it is not recommended to wear contact lenses.
After the ophthalmic application of ciprofloxacin, the sharpness of vision may be reduced. Thus, it is not recommended to drive and engage in activities that need extra attention and speed of psychomotor reactions immediately after the intake of Cipro.
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